Hispano Round Table de Nuevo México

emb

FACT SHEET ON BILINGUAL EDUCATION

by
Juan José Peña, BA, MA, Ph.D. Candidate,
Spanish & Latin American Language & Literature; History, Political Science & Economics
Minors: German, Portuguese & Linguistics
Chairman, Hispano Round Table of New Mexico
Vice-Commander, American GI Forum of New Mexico
Commander, American GI Forum of Alburquerque
Former Professor of Spanish, Chicano Studies and Bilingual Education
At New Mexico Highlands University

1. MOST HISPANOS IN THE SOUTHWEST ARE DESCENDANTS OF SPANISH AND NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLES THUS HAVING A CLAIM TO BEING NATIVE TO THE AMERICAS FOR TENS OF THOUSANDS OF YEARS TOGETHER WITH THEIR CULTURE, CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS.

2. INDOHISPANOS HAVE BEEN SPEAKING SPANISH IN WHAT IS NOW THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES SINCE FRANCISCO VASQUEZ DE CORONADO CAME HERE IN 1540.

3. THE MEXICAN AND SOUTHWESTERN INDOHISPANO LANGUAGE IS A COMBINATION OF THE SPANISH LANGUAGE AND SYNTAX AND NATIVE AMERICAN WORDS, THUS MAKING IT A HYBRID INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE OF THE AMERICAS.

4. SINCE 1521, SPAIN CONTROLLED NEW SPAIN (WHAT IS NOW CENTRAL AMERICA, MEXICO AND THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES), LA FLORIDA (NOW THE STATES OF FLORIDA, GEORGIA, ALABAMA AND MISSISSIPPI) AND MOST OF THE TERRITORY THE UNITED STATES ACQUIRED FROM FRANCE IN THE "LOUISIANA PURCHASE" WHILE SPAIN WAS BEING OCCUPIED BY FRANCE AND COULD NOT ASSERT ITS CLAIM.

5. THE UNITED STATES TOOK, BY FORCE OR FRAUD, THE TERRITORIES OF LA FLORIDA AND LOUISIANA FROM SPAIN AND TEJAS, NUEVO MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA FROM MEXICO AND CUBA, PUERTO RICO, THE SPANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS, HAWAII AND THE PHILIPPINES, GUAM AND OTHER SPANISH TERRITORIES.

6. MANUEL DE LA PEÑA Y PEÑA, OUR LAST MEXICAN PRESIDENT AND PRESIDENT OF THE MEXICAN SUPREME COURT WROTE INTO THE TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO THAT THE FORMER MEXICAN CITIZENS SHOULD ENJOY THE SAME RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES THAT THEY ENJOYED UNDER MEXICO AS WELL AS ALL OF THE GUARANTEES OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION. THIS GUARANTEES OUR RIGHTS TO OUR PROPERTY, RELIGION, LANGUAGE, CULTURE, DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE UNITED STATES DELETED ARTICLES 9 AND 10 FROM THE TREATY AND HAS NEVER OBSERVED THE PROTOCOL OF QUERETARO. THE TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO, AS AN INTERNATIONAL TREATY AND ACCORDING TO THE CONSTITUTION, IS PART OF THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND EQUAL TO THE OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION AND THE LAWS PASSED BY THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.

7. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE STATES THE WE ARE ENDOWED BY OUR CREATOR WITH CERTAIN INALIENABLE RIGHTS, CLEARLY ONE OF THESE RIGHTS IS THE RIGHT TO SPEAK AND LEARN IN OUR ANCESTRAL LANGUAGE WHICH PREDATES THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE LANDS BY CENTURIES, JUST AS THE NATIVE AMERICANS HAVE THE RIGHT TO LEARN AND TEACH THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS IF THEY SO DESIRE. OUR CLAIM FROM OUR ANCESTRAL NATIVE AMERICAN ANCESTORS IS JUST AS ANCIENT.

8. THE UNITED NATIONS HAVE PROCLAIMED THAT NATIVE PEOPLES HAVE A RIGHT TO RETAIN, MAINTAIN AND TEACH AND LEARN IN THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGES IN THEIR OWN ANCESTRAL HOMELANDS OR IN THE LANDS THEY MIGRATE TO.

9. OUR ANCESTORS WROTE INTO THE VARIOUS TERRITORIAL CONSTITUTIONS IN SEARCH OF STATEHOOD PROTECTIONS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE IN THE TERRITORY AND PROPOSED STATE OF NEW MEXICO, THIS INCLUDES THE CONSTITUTION OF 1910 WHICH WAS ADOPTED UPON NEW MEXICO ATTAINING ITS STATEHOOD IN 1912. THIS IS SUPPORTED BY ARTICLE 12, SECTION 8 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF NEW MEXICO THAT PROVIDES FOR TEACHERS TO LEARN SPANISH SO THAT THEY MAY TEACH THE STUDENTS. OUR CONSTITUTION ALSO MADE US A STATE WITH TWO OFFICIAL LANGUAGES, SPANISH AND ENGLISH, AND OUR LEGAL AND OFFICIAL STATE DOCUMENTS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH SINCE THE INVASION OF MEXICO BY THE UNITED STATES IN 18 46.

10. NEW MEXICO'S INDOHISPANO INTELLECTUALS AND POLITICAL LEADERS SUPPORTED AND DEFENDED THE TEACHING OF SPANISH IN NEW MEXICO, INCLUDING FELIX MARTINEZ, FOUNDER OF HIGHLANDS AND WESTERN NEW MEXICO UNIVERSITIES; OCTAVIANO LARRAZOLO, GOVERNOR AND US SENATOR; EZEQUIEL C'DE BACA, EDITOR OF "LA VOZ DEL PUEBLO" AND GOVERNOR; JUAN JOSE HERRERA, LEADER OF LOS CABALLEROS DE LABOR AND LAS GORRAS BLANCAS; EUSEBIO CHACON, NEWSPAPER EDITOR; JOSE ESCOBAR, EDITOR OF "LAS DOS REPUBLICAS;" BENJAMIN READ, AUTHOR OF "LA HISTORIA ILUSTRADA DE NUEVO MEXICO;" SOLOMON LUNA, CO-CHAIRMAN OF THE NEW MEXICO CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION OF 1910; CASIMIRO BARELA, STATE SENATOR; CAMILO PADILLA, EDITOR OF "LA REVISTA ILUSTRADA;" PEDRO RIBERA ORTEGA, THE LAST EDITOR OF "EL NUEVO MEXICANO;" AURORA JARAMILLO AND AURORA LUCERO WHITE, NEOMEXICAN WRITERS; DIONICIO CHAVEZ, UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE AND UNITED STATES SENATOR; JOSE M. MONTOYA, UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE AND UNITED STATES SENATOR; BILL RICHARDSON, UNITED STATES CONGRESSMAN; EDUARDO ROMERO, UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO SPAIN; MANUEL LUJAN, UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE; THE AMERICAN GI FORUM OF NEW MEXICO, THE LEAGUE OF UNITED LATIN AMERICAN CITIZENS AND THE HISPANO ROUND TABLE OF NEW MEXICO, A COALITION OF 35 HISPANO ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING OVER 35,000 COMBINED MEMBERS OF ITS COMPONENT ORGANIZATIONS.

11. THE FEDERAL COURTS HAVE UPHELD THE LEGALITY OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN SERNA VS. PORTALES, LAU VS. NICHOLS AND A TEXAS BILINGUAL EDUCATION CASE. THESE CASES WERE INSTITUTED IN THE FEDERAL COURTS AND RULED UPON FAVORABLY IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT THE STUDENTS' RIGHT TO AN EDUCATION WOULD NOT BE COMPROMISED AND THAT THE STUDENTS WOULD BE ABLE TO GET AN EDUCATION AND BECOME PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS OF THIS SOCIETY.

12. RUDOLF STEINER PROVED IN HIS WALDORF SCHOOL IN GERMANY IN THE 1850'S THAT CHILDREN WHO STUDY SEVERAL LANGUAGES I N ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AT THE END OF THEIR SCHOOLING ARE ON THE AVERAGE TWO YEARS AHEAD OF THEIR PEERS AT THE TIME OF THEIR GRADUATION FROM HIGH SCHOOL. THE WALDORF SCHOOLS TAUGHT GERMAN, FRENCH AND ENGLISH INTENSIVELY FROM KINDERGARTEN THROUGH THE SIXTH GRADE AND MAINTAINED THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGES UNTIL GRADUATION.

13. DURING THE TIME OF ENGLISH ONLY EDUCATION WHEN NATIVE BORN HISPANOS IN THE UNITED STATES' FIRST LANGUAGE WAS SPANISH AND THEY BEGAN TO ATTEND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN LARGE NUMBERS UNDER MANDATORY SCHOOLING REQUIREMENTS, DROP OUR RATES RANGED FROM 60% TO 80%.

14. WHEN STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO STUDY ACADEMIC SUBJECTS IN A LANGUAGE THEY DO NOT UNDERSTAND, THEY FALL BEHIND IN THE ACADEMIC SUBJECTS, DO NOT LEARN THEIR NON NATIVE LANGUAGE WELL, BECOME FRUSTRATED AND DROP OUT BECAUSE THEY GET FURTHER AND FURTHER BEHIND THEIR ENGLISH SPEAKING PEERS IN BOTH THEIR LANGUAGE SKILLS AND THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF THE ACADEMIC SUBJECT MATTER. THIS IS REFLECTED IN THE INORDINATELY HIGH DROPOUT RATES, IN MANY CASES OVER 40%, AMONG HISPANOS IN THE UNITED STATES.

15. IT HAS BEEN PROVEN THAT WELL ORGANIZED, PROPERLY FUNDED AND PROPERLY SUPPORTED BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS TAUGHT BY WELL TRAINED TEACHERS WHO HAVE A GOOD COMMAND OF BOTH LANGUAGES AND THE SUBJECT MATTER THEY ARE TEACHING ACHIEVE OUTSTANDING RESULTS AND STUDENTS WHO ARE AHEAD OF THEIR MONOLINGUAL PEERS IN LANGUAGE SKILLS, ACADEMIC SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE AND COGNITIVE AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS.

16. NEW MEXICO'S SPANISH SPEAKING HISPANOS HAVE SERVED THE UNITED STATES AS A BRIDGE TO LATIN AMERICA, SPAIN AND THE OTHER SPANISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES BY DISTINGUISHED NATIVE NEW MEXICAN INDOHISPANOS SINCE THE TERRITORIAL PERIOD. AMONG SOME OF THE MORE RECENT OF THESE ARE ABEL PEÑA, MARILUCI JARAMILLO AND EDUARDO ROMERO, AND MANY OTHERS HAVE SERVED IN EDUCATIONAL COOPERATION PROGRAMS SUCH AS DR.. FRANCISCO ANGEL, DR.. MARI LUCI JARAMILLO, DR.. SABINE ULIBARRI, DR.. MIGUEL ENCINIAS, AND OTHERS HAVE SERVED BY HELPING IN LEGAL EDUCATION SUCH MR. JESSE CASAUS, FORMER CLERK OF UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF NEW MEXICO AND ATTORNEY DENNIS MONTOYA AND SOME LIKE STEVEN LUCERO SERVE AS ENGINEERS IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR. WE ARE THE LINK BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND OVER 500 MILLION SPANISH SPEAKERS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE SPEAKERS OF THE FOURTH MOST SPOKEN LANGUAGE IN THE WORLD BECAUSE WE NOW CONSTITUTE 33 MILLION SPANISH SPEAKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, EQUAL TO THE AFRICAN AMERICAN POPULATION OF THE COUNTRY. WE ARE, AS UNOFFICIALLY ADMITTED BY THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, THE MAJORITY IN NEW MEXICO AND ARE FAST BECOMING THE MAJORITY IN CALIFORNIA AND TEXAS.

17. WE ARE THE PEOPLE OF THE BORDERLANDS, THE OVERLAP BETWEEN HISPANOAMERICA AND ANGLO AMERICA, AND, AS SUCH, WE ARE THE FASTEST GROWING MINORITY ETHNIC GROUP IN THE UNITED STATES. WE ARE ALREADY EQUAL TO THE AFRICAN AMERICANS AND VERY SOON WE WILL OUT NUMBER THEM AND BE THE LARGEST MINORITY IN THE UNITED STATES.

18. AS SOLDIERS, WE HAVE FOUGHT IN ALL OF THE WARS THE UNITED STATES HAS BEEN IN PROPORTIONALLY, WE HAVE MORE CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR WINNERS THAN ANY OTHER ETHNIC GROUP IN THE UNITED STATES. WITH OUR BLOOD AND COURAGE, WE HAVE EARNED THE RIGHT TO SPEAK OUR NATIVE LANGUAGE IN OUR NATIVE LAND. MOST OF THE TIME WE WERE NOT ASKED WHEN WE WERE CALLED UPON TO SHED OUR BLOOD WHETHER OR NOT WE SPOKE ENGLISH, AND MANY MEXICANOS AND PUERTORIQUEÑOS WHO SPOKE LITTLE ENGLISH FOUGHT BESIDE ME IN THE VIETNAM WAR.

19. RECENTLY, THE CUBAN AND PUERTO RICAN COMMUNITIES OF FLORIDA HAVE STATED UNEQUIVOCALLY THAT THEY WILL NOT ALLOW THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGE NOR THEIR BILINGUAL EDUCATION TO BE TAKEN AWAY FROM THEM, WE, THE ORIGINAL OFFICIALLY BILINGUAL STATE, CANNOT DO ANY LESS TO PROTECT OUR NATIVE AND INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE NOW THAT IT IS UNDER ATTACK BY HISTORICAL JOHNNY COME LATELYS AND LACKEYS WHO USE ORWELLIAN NEWSPEAK AND DOUBLETHINK (HENCE COUNCIL FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, I.E. "CEO").

20. THE HISPANO PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES, ESPECIALLY IN THE STATES THAT BORDER MEXICO, ARE UNDER ATTACK BY XENOPHOBES, NATIVISTS AND BIGOTS WHO HATE AND WANT TO EJECT, SUBJUGATE, ELIMINATE, MARGINALIZE, DISAPPEAR OR HOMOGENIZE THE HISPANO AND NATIVE AMERICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE AMERICAS AS THEY DID IN THE 1870'S AND DURING THE 1930'S AND THE 1950'S UNDER THE TWO OPERATIONS WETBACK, WHEN EVEN INDOHISPANO CITIZENS WERE DEPORTED. THE XENOPHOBES HAVE ATTEMPTED TO EXCLUDE US FROM PARTICIPATION N U.S. SOCIETY BY MEANS OF DEPORTATIONS, KEEPING US FROM OR EJECTING US FROM HIGHER EDUCATION, DENYING US EQUAL REPRESENTATION IN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS, KEEPING US FROM BEING COUNTED IN THE CENSUS ACCORDING TO OUR TRUE NUMBERS IN THIS COUNTRY, AND KEEPING US FROM BEING PROPORTIONALLY REPRESENTED BY OUR OWN PEOPLE IN OUR OWN POLITICAL AND PUBLIC OFFICES AND INSTITUTIONS BY GERRYMANDERING OUR PEOPLE OUT OF MAJORITY HISPANO DISTRICTS BECAUSE PARITY IN ELECTED OFFICIALS, ADMINISTRATORS, PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND PROFESSIONAL STAFFS COULD MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN HOW WE ARE TREATED AND HOW OUR INTERESTS ARE REPRESENTED IN OUR PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AT THE NATIONAL, STATE AND LOCAL LEVEL.

21. AS NATIVES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, THE NATIVE AMERICANS AND INDOHISPANOS HAVE THE RIGHT, AND WE PAY FOR IT WITH OUR TAXES, TO HAVE OUR LANGUAGE, OUR HISTORY, OUR LITERATURE AND OUR CULTURE TAUGHT IN OUR PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS ON A BASIS EQUAL TO THAT OF THE ENGLISH SPEAKING PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES, BECAUSE WE HAD AN EQUAL PART IN THE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THIS COUNTRY, AND WE PAID FOR IT WITH OUR BLOOD, OUR LAND, OUR SWEAT AND OUR LABOR, AND WE MUST NOT BE INVISIBLE, OR, AS JORGE ISIDORO SANCHEZ CALLED US - "THE FORGOTTEN PEOPLE," ANY LONGER IN OUR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, IN OUR PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, IN THE MASS MEDIA OR IN THE PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF OUR OWN COUNTRY.

22. THE LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND IDENTITY OF A PEOPLE ARE AS MUCH A PART OF THEM AS THE COLOR OF THEIR SKIN, THE FOOD THEY EAT OR THE AIR THEY BREATHE, AND IDENTITY IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE PSYCHE OF PERSON. A PERSON WHO HAS LOST HIS IDENTITY, HIS LANGUAGE AND HIS CULTURE IS NOT A WHOLE PERSON; THERE IS ALWAYS A PART OF HIM OR HER WHICH IS MISSING AND HE IS NEITHER PART OF HIS OWN PEOPLE NOR OF THE PEOPLE WHOM HE HAS CHOSEN TO IMITATE, HE IS NEITHER FISH NOR FOWL, BECAUSE HE CANNOT BE WHAT HE IS NOT. HE MUST BE HIMSELF AND BE TRUE TO HIS ROOTS AND HIS ORIGINS.

23. BY PROMOTING BILINGUAL EDUCATION, WE ARE NOT ADVOCATING FOR SEPARATISM, FOR NOT LEARNING ENGLISH, FOR NOT LEARNING ANGLO OR WESTERN HISTORY, CULTURE, ART, LITERATURE OR ANYTHING ELSE, WE ARE ADVOCATING FOR THE LEARNING OF THESE PLUS OUR OWN INDOHISPANO LANGUAGE, HISTORY, CULTURE, LITERATURE, ART AND CIVILIZATION AS WELL AS FOR THE LEARNING MANY OTHER LANGUAGES, CULTURES AND HISTORIES. THE UNITED STATES HAS TO STOP BEING WHAT SAMUEL CLEMENS CALLED "THE UGLY AMERICAN," WE ARE NOT THE ONLY PEOPLE IN THE WORLD AND ENGLISH IS NOT THE ONLY LANGUAGE IN THE WORLD. WE ARE LIVING IN A RAPIDLY SHRINKING AND EVER MORE INTERDEPENDENT WORLD WITH AN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY AND TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS, MANY OF WHICH OPERATE IN THE MORE THAN 20 SPANISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD. OUR LANGUAGE IS NOT A HANDICAP, IT IS AN ASSET AND A TREASURE, AN ASSET AND A TREASURE WHICH MUST BE NURTURED, DEVELOPED AND UTILIZED, AND WE WILL ALL BE THE RICHER FOR IT. IT IS OUR TREASURE, AND WE MUST NOT LET ANYONE TAKE IT AWAY FROM US.

24. MOST OF THE COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD TEACH SEVERAL LANGUAGES IN THEIR PUBLIC SCHOOLS, AND WE ARE NOW RECRUITING THE STUDENTS OF THOSE SCHOOLS AS UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS, SCIENTISTS (REMEMBER THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE GERMAN SCIENTISTS DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II TO THE PRESENT), COMPUTER TECHNICIANS, TEACHERS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS, DOCTORS, NURSES, TECHNICIANS, AND SKILLED PROFESSIONAL IN MANY FIELDS. OTHER NON OR LIMITED ENGLISH SPEAKERS ALSO CONTRIBUTE AS WELL, SINCE THEY ARE THE PEOPLE WHO PICK AND PROCESS OUR FOODS, WORK IN OUR RESTAURANTS, DRIVE OUR CABS, DO A LARGE PART OF THE MANUAL LABOR IN THE COUNTRY, CONTRIBUTE TO THE CREATION OF WEALTH IN THIS COUNTRY AND PROVIDE A FUTURE WITH THEIR STRONG WORK ETHIC, ZEAL, HOPE FOR THE FUTURE, EXPECTATIONS AND THEIR MINDS, SKILLS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THEIR YOUTH WHO WILL BE THE FUTURE PRODUCERS.

25. MANY OF THE PROBLEMS IN BILINGUAL EDUCATION STEM FROM THE FACT THAT THE PEDAGOGUES IN THE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION HAVE SUBVERTED THE ORIGINAL DESIGN OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION OF THE PROFESSORS OF SPANISH AND THE OTHER HUMANITIES DIVISIONS AND HAVE REDIRECTED TEACHER PREPARATION TOWARD AN EMPHASIS ON EDUCATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORY AND AWAY FROM HAVING THE TEACHERS FOCUS THEIR ATTENTION ON DEVELOPING STRONG LANGUAGE SKILLS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH AND IN THE SUBJECT MATTER THEY WERE GOING TO TEACH. THIS H AS DILUTED CONSIDERABLY THE CURRICULA FOR TEACHER OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION WHICH WE DEVELOPED IN THE LATE 1960's AND THE EARLY 1970's. THIS IN TURN HAS LED TO HAVING INSUFFICIENTLY PREPARED TEACHERS IN THE BILINGUAL EDUCATION CLASSROOMS WHICH IN TURN HAS LED TO WEAK COURSE INSTRUCTION IN THE CLASSROOMS; THIS IS SIMILAR TO THE DILUTION OF THE TEACHING OF SUBJECT MATTER IN MANY REGULAR ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOMS ON THE ACADEMIC SUBJECTS.

26. FOR NON ENGLISH SPEAKERS, THE EMPHASIS IN THE CLASSROOM HAS TO BE ON TEACHING THE SUBJECT MATTER IN THE SPANISH LANGUAGE AND TO HAVE AT LEAST TWO HOURS PER DAY IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TOTAL EMERSION CLASSES, WHERE THE FOCUS ON THE LEARNING OF ENGLISH CAN BE TOTAL WITHOUT THE ADDITIONAL HARDSHIP AND DISTRACTION OF ALSO HAVING TO LEARN THE SUBJECT MATTER. ONCE THE STUDENTS HAVE MASTERED A SUFFICIENT LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TO DO THE COURSE WORK IN ENGLISH AND KEEP UP WITH THEIR PEERS, AS MEASURED BY ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPETENCY EXAMINATIONS TO ENSURE THAT THEIR ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPETENCY SKILLS ARE AT GRADE LEVEL,. THEY SHOULD THEN BE GIVEN THE OPTION OF CONTINUING THEIR SUBJECT MATTER COURSE WORK IN SPANISH OR TRANSFERRING INTO THE EQUIVALENT ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSES. BILINGUAL EDUCATION CLASSES ARE ALSO NEEDED AT THE MIDSCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL TO ACCOMMODATE HISPANOS WHO COME INTO THE SCHOOL SYSTEMS FROM THEIR HOME COUNTRIES DURING THOSE YEARS, SO THEY TOO CAN TAKE THE SAME COURSES AS THEIR AGE GROUP PEERS, ALBEIT IN THE SPANISH LANGUAGE, AND THEY TOO SHOULD HAVE ACCESS TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE TOTAL IMMERSION COURSES.

WHETHER OR NOT THE STUDENTS TRANSFER INTO ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASS, THEY SHOULD CONTINUE WITH FORMAL AND INTENSIVE SPANISH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE COURSES SO THAT THEIR LINGUISTIC SKILLS IN BOTH LANGUAGES ARE MAINTAINED AND EXPANDED AT THE LEVEL OR GRADE THEY ARE CURRENTLY STUDYING. THIS IN TURN WOULD CREATE A POOL OF POTENTIAL BILINGUAL TEACHERS, SCHOLARS, TECHNICIANS, DIPLOMATS, INTERPRETERS, BUSINESSMEN, ENTREPRENEURS, ETC. WHOSE LANGUAGE SKILLS WERE ADEQUATE TO BE PROFICIENT, EFFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS IN THE FUTURE WHO COULD EASILY AND EFFECTIVE INTERACT WITH THE 600 MILLION PLUS SPANISH SPEAKERS IN THE WORLD. LINGUISTICALLY SKILLED STUDENTS WHO ARE STRONG IN BOTH ENGLISH AND SPANISH SHOULD BE SEEN AS AN ASSET TO THE NATION WHO CAN HELP REACH OUT TO OUR NEIGHBORS TO THE SOUTH AND ACROSS THE SEAS AND NOT AS A LIABILITY WHOSE NATIVE AND HOME LANGUAGE SHOULD BE SUBORDINATED OR ERADICATED.

27. BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS NEED TO BE WELL PLANNED, ORGANIZED, COORDINATED AND DELIVERED UNDER THE OVERSIGHT OF A SKILLED, PROFICIENT AND DILIGENT ADMINISTRATOR WHO CAN ESTABLISH, ORGANIZE, OVERSEE, MANAGE AND CORRECT THE BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT EACH SCHOOL, SO THAT THE DELIVERY OF THE PROGRAMS WILL NOT BE SLIPSHOD, INEFFECTIVE, INEFFICIENT, INADEQUATE OR NOT MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE STUDENTS. THE COORDINATOR MUST ENSURE THAT THE TEACHERS ARE TRAINED, WELL PREPARED AND CERTIFIED IN THEIR FIELD, THAT THE CLASS SIZES ARE ADEQUATE FOR THE TYPE OF INSTRUCTION THAT NEEDS TO TAKE PLACE, THE TEACHERS HAVE ADEQUATE FACILITIES, TEXTBOOKS AND MATERIALS TO TEACH THE SUBJECT MATTER OR THE LANGUAGE THAT THEY ARE TEACHING, BE IT ENGLISH OR SPANISH, AS THE CASE MAY BE. BILINGUAL EDUCATION ALSO DEFINITIVELY NEEDS TO BE ADEQUATELY FUNDED AND OVERSIGHT NEEDS TO BE IN PLACE IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT FUNDS APPROPRIATED FOR BILINGUAL EDUCATION ARE ALLOCATED TO BILINGUAL EDUCATION.

THE TEXTBOOKS AND MATERIALS SHOULD FULLY AND ADEQUATELY REFLECT THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE'S HISTORY, CULTURE, ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND DISTINGUISHED AND OUTSTANDING LEADERS AND PEOPLE. THIS DOES NOT MEAN THAT OTHER SUBJECT MATTER FROM A STANDARD ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULA SHOULD BE EXCLUDED, ONLY THAT IT SHOULD BE BALANCED WITH THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE HISPANO PEOPLE. THIS BALANCE SHOULD ALSO BE REFLECTED IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULA AS WELL. SEEING THEMSELVES REFLECTED IN THE COURSES AND TEXTBOOKS AS HAVING HAD A PART IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS COUNTRY IN ALL ITS ASPECTS WILL ENCOURAGE HISPANO YOUTH TO EDUCATE THEMSELVES AND BECOME CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS OF SOCIETY, BECAUSE THEY WILL SEE THAT WE HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THIS SOCIETY'S DEVELOPMENT FROM THE VERY BEGINNING AND THAT WE TOO HAVE HEROES AND ROLE MODELS WHO MADE A DIFFERENCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THAT THEY TOO CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE AND HELP TO BUILD A BETTER SOCIETY. IN NEW MEXICO, WE HAVE MANY SUCH HEROES, THEY JUST DO NOT APPEAR IN THE ANGLO HISTORY BOOKS

28. BILINGUAL EDUCATION TEACHERS WHO ARE PREPARED AND SKILLED IN THE MANNER PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED MUST BE ADEQUATELY COMPENSATED MONETARILY AND RECOGNIZED FOR THEIR ADDED SKILLS AND ABILITIES; LIKEWISE, SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE IN OTHER PROFESSIONS SHOULD ALSO BE SO COMPENSATED. IT IS UNFAIR TO EXPLOIT PEOPLE WHO HAVE ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE SKILLS AND ABILITIES AND COMPENSATE THEM AT THE SAME LEVEL AS PEOPLE WHO DO NOT HAVE THOSE SKILLS AND ABILITIES. LIKEWISE, IT IS IMPROPER TO UTILIZE NATIVE SPANISH SPEAKERS WHO DO NOT HAVE THE EDUCATION, SKILL, ABILITY, TRAINING AND PREPARATION THAT THE PROFESSIONALS DO TO FILL THOSE POSITIONS. THIS IS A RISKY AND POTENTIALLY DISASTROUS PRACTICE, WHETHER IN THE CLASSROOM, IN POLICE DEPARTMENTS, IN MEDICAL FACILITIES OR IN THE COURTROOM. CLEARLY IT IS IMPROPER TO UTILIZE NON SPANISH SPEAKING PERSONS TO ATTEMPT TO TEACH PEOPLE WHO DO NOT SPEAK THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, BECAUSE THEY CANNOT COMMUNICATE WITH THEM, MUCH LESS TEACH THEM. BY MEANS OF PREPARING OUR SPANISH SPEAKING YOUTH IN SPANISH FROM GRADE SCHOOL ON, WE ARE PREPARING A POTENTIAL POOL FROM WHICH THESE SPANISH SPEAKING PROFESSIONALS CAN COME.

29. WE HAVE ALREADY SEEN FROM OUR OWN EXPERIENCE THAT ENGLISH ONLY EDUCATION DOES NOT WORK. THE DROPOUT RATES OF HISPANOS WHEN WE BEGAN TO ENTER THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN SUBSTANTIAL NUMBERS UNDER AN ENGLISH ONLY SYSTEM WERE HORRENDOUS, WELL OVER 60%. MOST OF MY HISPANO CLASSMATES WHO STARTED WITH ME IN THE FIRST GRADE AND ATTENDED THE EAST LAS VEGAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS HAD DROPPED OUT BY THE TIME THEY WERE TO ENTER HIGH SCHOOL BECAUSE THEY WERE UNABLE TO KEEP UP WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER SINCE THEY CAME FROM EXCLUSIVELY SPANISH SPEAKING HOUSEHOLDS. IT WAS A MIRACLE THAT AS MANY OF US AS DID WERE ABLE TO TOUGH OUT THE LACK OF COMPREHENSION, THE ABUSE OF THE ANGLO AND AT TIMES EVEN OF THE HISPANO TEACHERS AND ACHIEVE GRADUATION FROM HIGH SCHOOL AND THAT SOME OF US WERE EVEN ABLE TO GO ON TO COLLEGE.

WE CAN SEE FROM THE PRESENT HORRENDOUS HISPANO DROPOUT RATES OF OVER 40% ACROSS THE COUNTRY THAT EVEN NOW ENGLISH ONLY EDUCATION DOES NOT WORK FOR HISPANO STUDENTS AND THAT IT ONLY SERVES TO SEGREGATE AND ISOLATE US FROM THE MAINSTREAM AS OPPOSED TO BRINGING US ALONG AT AN EQUIVALENT LEVEL TO OUR ANGLO PEERS AS WE WOULD BE IF WE WERE TAUGHT THE SUBJECT MATTER IN OUR OWN LANGUAGE AND TAUGHT ENGLISH SEPARATELY AND INTENSIVELY IN TOTAL IMMERSION ENGLISH LANGUAGE COURSES. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR HISPANO STUDENTS TO LEARN ENGLISH SUFFICIENTLY WELL IN THE SHORT TIME SPAN THAT IT IS SLATED TO BE TAUGHT UNDER THE CALIFORNIA INITIATIVE AND THEY CERTAINLY CANNOT ABSORB THE SUBJECT MATTER IN A LANGUAGE THEY CANNOT UNDERSTAND OR BE ABLE TO KEEP UP WITH THEIR ANGLO PEERS. THIS WILL ONLY FURTHER AGGRAVATE THE DROPOUT RATES FOR HISPANOS IN AREAS WHERE BILINGUAL EDUCATION IS ELIMINATED, AND PERHAPS IT WILL EVEN PUSH IT BACK UP TO THE LEVELS IT WAS AT WHEN I STARTED SCHOOL IN THE EARLY 1950'S.

30. THE USE OF OTHER LANGUAGES IN THE UNITED STATES IS NOT GOING TO BE ERADICATED BY PASSING ENGLISH ONLY LAWS. THIS ONLY MAKES COMMUNICATION MORE DIFFICULT AND IT DEMEANS PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES WHOSE NATIVE LANGUAGES PREDATE THE COMING OF THE ENGLISH SPEAKING PEOPLE AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TO THIS CONTINENT. THE UNITED STATES NEEDS TO ACCEPT THE FACT, JUST AS MANY OTHER COUNTRIES HAVE, THAT THERE ARE MANY PEOPLE IN THE COUNTRY WHO SPEAK A LANGUAGE OTHER THAN THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY AND LEARN TO WORK IN HARMONY WITH THE SPEAKERS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. THESE PEOPLE ARE GOING TO LEARN ENGLISH TO A GREATER OR LESSER DEGREE ACCORDING TO THEIR ABILITIES. BUT THEIR LANGUAGES CANNOT BE LEGISLATED OUT OF EXISTENCE. INFORMATION WITH REFERENCE TO PUBLIC AGENCIES AND SERVICES MUST BE DISSEMINATED IN THESE LANGUAGES TO ENSURE THAT THESE PUBLIC SERVICES ARE AVAILABLE TO THE NON ENGLISH SPEAKER AND INTERPRETERS MUST BE AVAILABLE TO SERVE THESE PEOPLE IN THE PUBLIC OFFICES. FURTHERMORE, WE MUST NOT BE PROHIBITED FROM SPEAKING OUR OWN NATIVE LANGUAGES IN THE WORKPLACE WHEN OUR TASK AND THE SITUATION DO NOT REQUIRE US TO USE ENGLISH TO COMMUNICATE. THESE IS OUR NATIVE LAND AND ANCESTRAL LANDS AND WE HAVE BEEN SPEAKING SPANISH HERE FOR CENTURIES BEFORE THE ANGLO ARRIVED HERE, AND IT IS NOT THEIR PERVUE TO PROHIBIT US FROM SPEAKING IT HERE NOW.

31. IT SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN FOR GRANTED THAT "THE REST OF THE WORLD IS MOVING TO ENGLISH," SO IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO LEARN ANOTHER LANGUAGE, SINCE MOST OF THE MEETINGS, CONFERENCES, NEGOTIATIONS, FACE TO FACE BUSINESS DEALINGS, ETC. STILL REQUIRE AN INTERPRETER, AND ALMOST ALL COUNTRIES STILL REQUIRE THAT DOCUMENTS WRITTEN IN ENGLISH BE TRANSLATED INTO THE LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY BEFORE THEY ARE ACCEPTED AS SUBSTANTIATING DOCUMENTS FOR WHATEVER LEGAL PURPOSES THEY ARE SUPPOSED TO SERVE. DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH ARE NOT ACCEPTED AS THEY ARE, JUST AS DOCUMENTS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES ARE NOT ACCEPTED FOR LEGAL PURPOSES IN THE UNITED STATES. FOR COMPLICATED MATTERS, EVEN THOSE PEOPLE FROM OTHER COUNTRIES HAVE TO RELY ON AN INTERPRETER, BECAUSE GENERALLY THEIR ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS ARE NOT SUFFICIENTLY ADEQUATE TO DEAL WITH MORE COMPLICATED MATTERS. IT IS SHAMEFUL THAT SO MANY DIPLOMATS, BUSINESSMEN, EDUCATORS AND EVEN ORDINARY PEOPLE FROM OTHER COUNTRIES ARE SO PROFICIENT IN SO MANY LANGUAGES WHILE PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES ARE SO SEVERELY LIMITED ONLY TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND THEREFORE CHAUVINISTICALLY BELIEVE THAT THE REST OF THE WORLD MUST SPEAK ENGLISH IN ORDER TO ACCOMMODATE US. IT IS WE WHO ARE DEFICIENT IF WE SPEAK ONLY ONE LANGUAGE, NOT THE REST OF THE WORLD IF THEY DO NOT SPEAK ENGLISH BUT SPEAK SEVERAL OTHER LANGUAGES. IT IS WE WHO MUST MASTER OTHER LANGUAGES IN ORDER TO INTERACT WITH THE REST OF THE WORLD.

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